Tag Archive 'riesgos'

Martes 11 / diciembre / 2012

Sodium, Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Disease: Further Evidence Supporting the American Heart Association Sodium Reduction Recommendations

Filed under: comentario — Mario Hernández Cueto — diciembre 11th, 2012 — 9:48

Sodium, Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Disease: Further Evidence Supporting the American Heart Association Sodium Reduction Recommendations

ComentandoPor: Paul K. Whelton, MB, MD, MSc, FAHA, Chair; Lawrence J. Appel, MD, MPH, FAHA; Ralph L. Sacco, MD, MSc, FAHA; Cheryl A.M. Anderson, PhD, MPH, MS, FAHA; Elliott M. Antman, MD, FAHA; Norman Campbell, MD; Sandra B. Dunbar, RN, DSN, FAHA; Edward D. Frohlich, MD, FAHA; John E. Hall, PhD, FAHA; Mariell Jessup, MD, FAHA; Darwin R. Labarthe, MD, MPH, D, FAHA; Graham A. MacGregor, MB, BCH; rank M. Sacks, MD, FAHA; Jeremiah Stamler, MD, FAHA; Dorothea K. Vafiadis, MS, FAHA y Linda V. Van Horn, PhD, RD, LD, FAHA. Circulation. 2012;126.

Recent reports of selected observational studies and a meta-analysis have stirred controversy and have become the impetus for calls to abandon recommendations for reduced sodium intake by the US general population. A detailed review of these studies documents substantial methodological concerns that limit the usefulness of these studies in setting, much less reversing, dietary recommendations.  Indeed, the evidence base supporting recommendations for reduced sodium intake in the general population remains robust and persuasive.  [publicada: 11 de diciembre 2012].

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Miércoles 28 / noviembre / 2012

A manera de editorial

Filed under: Editorial — Mario Hernández Cueto — noviembre 28th, 2012 — 8:56

A manera de editorial.  Los trabajos y opiniones que aquí se exponen son orientadores de lo que se publica en Cuba y en el mundo sobre aspectos relevantes de la hipertensión arterial.

Variabilidad en la medida de la presión arterial periférica.  ¿Limitación o marcador de riesgo?

EditorialPor: Morales-Salinas, A.  Hipertensión. 2012;29:50-1.- vol.29 núm 02.

Hemos leído con interés el editorial de Oliveras, en el que se analizan los elementos que existen a favor y en contra de la medida de la presión arterial (PA) a nivel periférico (arteria braquial) y central (aorta).

A propósito de este interesante trabajo queremos reflexionar en el hecho que la variabilidad de PA periférica parece tener un papel emergente como marcador de riesgo cardiovascular (RCV) en los pacientes con hipertensión arterial (HTA). En este sentido, Rothwel et al. demostraron que la variabilidad de la PA sistólica en consultas predice mejor el riesgo de ictus, que la PA media; y que además, podría explicar las diferencias que existen en la incidencia de ictus entre los principales medicamentos antihipertensivos, independientemente de sus efectos sobre la PA media. [publicada 27 de noviembre de 2012.]

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Lunes 26 / noviembre / 2012

New Risk Factor Identified for High Blood Pressure during Pregnancy

Filed under: noticia — Mario Hernández Cueto — noviembre 26th, 2012 — 10:24

New Risk Factor Identified for High Blood Pressure during Pregnancy

Mujer embarazada e hipertensaPreeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy and the major cause of death for both mother and child in Europe and the U.S. It affects about one in 20 pregnancies. The main symptoms are high blood pressure and protein in the urine. The cause of preeclampsia is still unclear. Dr. Florian Herse (Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC) of the Max Delbrück Center (MDC) and the Charité), Dr. Ralf Dechend (ECRC and Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch) and their collaborators have now identified an enzyme that is overexpressed in affected women and thus apparently contributes to development of the condition. In animal experiments, the researchers inhibited this enzyme and were able to ameliorate the disease process (10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.127340).

Preeclampsia originates in the placenta, which supplies the embryo/fetus in the womb with nutrients. For their study, Dr. Herse, numerous contributors, and Dr. Dechend analyzed tissue samples from 25 women diagnosed with preeclampsia and from 23 healthy pregnant women as controls. The tissue samples of the preeclamptic women were obtained from hospitals in Finland, Norway, Austria, and the U.S. that cooperated closely in the study.

Using gene-chip technology, the researchers in Berlin analyzed the expression of almost 40,000 genes. They found that in women with preeclampsia, levels of the CYP2J2 enzyme were unusually high in placental cells and the uterine lining (decidua). The placenta consists of fetal cells; the decidua, by contrast, is solely maternal tissue. The enzyme is involved in the production of specific metabolites called EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids) which, among other things, regulate inflammatory processes, vascular growth, and blood pressure.

Dr. Herse and team succeeded in identifying the cells that produce the CYP2J2 enzyme as trophoblasts, which fulfill an important function in pregnancy. These fetal cells migrate from the placenta into the maternal decidua. Trophoblasts are key contributors to spiral-artery remodeling and thus ensure that the fetus is sufficiently supplied with nutrients. However, if the trophoblasts do not grow deeply enough into the decidua, this remodeling process is disturbed. As a consequence, the fetus cannot be sufficiently supplied with nutrients, leading to preeclampsia. EETs evidently have a harmful effect because they activate a substance which prevents the trophoblasts from growing into the decidua.

Both a protective and damaging effect

Previous studies indicated that EETs exert only positive effects on the cardiovascular system. EETs generally mediate vascular expansion and reduce blood pressure. They also protect the tissue from dying of oxygen deficiency. In normal pregnancies EET levels are slightly elevated.

Previous experiments with healthy pregnant rats showed that pharmacological inhibition of the CYP2J2 enzyme and the associated inhibition of EET production lead to hypertension and kidney failure. In pregnant rats with preeclamptic symptoms, however, opposite effects may occur. By inhibiting CYP2J2, the ECRC researchers were able to lower blood pressure levels in these animals.

How did these conflicting observations come about? Dr. Herse and team demonstrated that the EETs can be converted into other metabolites. A specific enzyme (cyclooxygenase, COX) alters these components further in such a way that they cause vasoconstriction and thus an increase in blood pressure. EETs that normally lower blood pressure can evidently produce metabolites that cause blood pressure to rise in preeclampsia. If however the researchers inhibited the cyclooxygenase in the pregnant animals, the EETs were not converted further and the blood pressure did not increase. “This work shows that the increased production of EET in the placenta and the conversion via cyclooxygenase into hormones that increase blood pressure both favor the development of preeclampsia,” Dr. Herse and Dr. Dechend explained.

Messenger substance of the immune system apparently promotes the development of preeclampsia

But why do the bodies of women with preeclampsia produce more CYP2J2 and thus more EET? Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a chemical messenger of the immune system, could possibly contribute. This signaling substance is released at early stages of pregnancy whenever placental blood flow is too low, causing oxygen deficiency. As the researchers showed, TNF-alpha promotes the production of CYP2J2 and EET in the placenta. In other tissues, this reaction would be useful, since EET rescues tissue from dying that has an insufficient supply of blood and therefore of oxygen. In the placenta, by contrast, this boost in production of CYP2J2 and EET could lead to a vicious circle. The trophoblasts do not grow as well into the decidua and the blood vessels and are not remodeled correctly, so that blood flow through the placenta and blood supply to the fetus deteriorates. As a consequence, the mothers becomes hypertensive and EETs under these conditions is converted in such a way that the blood pressure continues to increase.

Treatment of preeclampsia, which according to estimates costs many thousands of maternal lives across the globe every year, remains difficult. The only possibility is to induce delivery at an early stage if the clinical presentation is severe. In Germany, preeclampsia is the cause for up to 20,000 premature births annually. Once the child is born, the symptoms subside in the mother. Nevertheless, she may suffer long-term increased risk for cardiovascular disease and develop heart attack, stroke, or hypertension at an early age. For the child, depending on the stage of fetal development, the premature birth may result in death or severe lifelong disability, and the child may also have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease later on. The research conducted by Dr. Herse, the entire team, and Dr. Dechend implicates a previously unknown mechanism. Their discovery may contribute to a better understanding of the disease process and its causes, and may ultimately aid in developing a therapy.

(Fuente: http://www.mdc-berlin.de) [publicada: 22 de noviembre 2012] [publicada en la página: 26 de nov. 2012]

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Miércoles 14 / noviembre / 2012

La hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo conlleva riesgo de discapacidad mental.

Filed under: noticia — Mario Hernández Cueto — noviembre 14th, 2012 — 9:21

La hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo conlleva riesgo de discapacidad mental. [Debe registrarse para ver la noticia original]

Mujer embarazadaLos niños nacidos de madres con presión arterial alta pueden sufrir discapacidad mental durante toda su vida, advirtieron investigadores.

El hallazgo es el último en vincular los problemas de salud en el curso de la vida con las madres que padecen hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo.

Investigadores en Finlandia estudiaron los niños de casi 400 mujeres que dieron a luz en la primera mitad del Siglo XX, valorando sus capacidades mentales a los 20 y a los 69 años de edad.
Las pruebas demostraron un fuerte vínculo entre la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo y la disminución de la capacidad mental en dominios que comprenden razonamiento numérico y relaciones visuales y espaciales.

Los hallazgos fueron publicados en Neurology y fueron respaldados por la British Heart Foundation.

El profesor Jeremy Pearson, director médico de la asociación de la fundación, dijo: «Las investigaciones previas realizadas por nuestros científicos condujeron al reconocimiento inicial de que los niños de madres con hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo tienen al crecer un incremento del riesgo de cardiopatía y accidente cerebrovascular». «Este estudio a pequeña escala indica que la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo tiene otro efecto previamente no reconocido». «También resalta la importancia del reconocimiento oportuno y el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo».

Referencias:  Soile Tuovinen et al. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and cognitive decline in the offspring up to old age. Neurology October 3 2012; 79:1578–1582.

(Fuente: Medcenter Medical News) [publicado por Medcenter 09/10/12]

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