Archive for the 'hemeroteca-digital-cubanos'

ene 13 2014

Estado actual de la formación médica para el enfrentamiento de desastres químicos, biológicos y nucleares

Estado actual de la formación médica para el enfrentamiento de desastres químicos, biológicos y nucleares. Guerra Cepena Eulises.  MEDISAN vol.17 no.6 Santiago de Cuba jun. 2013

Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de 200 alumnos del sexto año de medicina del curso 2011-2012, de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas No. 2 de Santiago de Cuba, con vistas a determinar algunas de las insuficiencias en ellos que afectaban la actuación ante la contingencia de desastres químicos, biológicos o nucleares, para lo cual se aplicaron una encuesta no estructurada y una guía de observación. En la serie se evidenció la desmotivación de unos cuantos estudiantes en relación con la temática, así como el insuficiente conocimiento teórico del tema, el desconocimiento de las vías para acceder a la información y la poca utilización de la materia en los eventos científicos desarrollados en la institución universitaria, lo que involucró la poca sistematización del contenido sobre desastres y afectaba los objetivos de la formación del médico con perfil amplio.

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ene 13 2014

El análisis territorial de riesgo para las enfermedades transfronterizas de los animales en Cuba

El análisis territorial de riesgo para las enfermedades transfronterizas de los animales en Cuba. Percedo María Irian, González Isel, Chávez Pablo R, Delgado Carlos, Abeledo María Antonia. Rev Salud Anim.  [revista en la Internet]. 2013  Ago [citado  2013  Dic  16] ;  35(2): 116-125. Disponible también en: http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0253-570X2013000200007&lang=pt

Se desarrolló y aplicó en todos los municipios del país una metodología para el análisis territorial de riesgo de desastres biológicos por enfermedades transfronterizas de los animales (ETrans). La metodología identifica los lugares relevantes para la entrada y consiguiente diseminación potencial de las ETrans (objetivos con riesgo biológico-ORB) y caracteriza el nivel de su vulnerabilidad (brechas sanitarias), así como de la población animal local. La vulnerabilidad de la población animal considera varios tópicos divididos en cuatro aspectos: estructura de la producción animal, el control sanitario, la urbanización en la crianza de animales y las características generales del territorio. En 161 municipios evaluados se identificaron 1597 ORB. Pocos municipios fueron clasificados con el mayor nivel de riesgo, pero se identificaron brechas sanitarias en muchos de ellos. La identificación de brechas sanitarias y del Índice General de Riesgo Biológico en cada municipio y ORB fue útil para el perfeccionamiento de los planes de reducción de riesgo respectivos. Este proceso de análisis de riesgo facilita su comunicación, así como su entendimiento y aceptación, por parte de los decisores. Se discute el uso de esta metodología para el desarrollo de los planes de prevención a nivel local.

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ene 13 2014

Leaf mechanisms for drought resistance in Zizyphus jujuba trees

Leaf mechanisms for drought resistance in Zizyphus jujuba trees. Z.N. Cruz et al. Dpto. Fisiología y Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA), Ctra. de Tapaste, km 3.5, San José de Las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba. Plant Science Volume 197, December 2012, Pages 77–83 [revista en la Internet] Disponible también en: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168945212001975
No information exists on the mechanisms developed at the level of leaf water relations by pear-jujube trees (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) to confront drought. For this reason, the purpose of the present study was to analyse its leaf water relations in order to clarify the resistance mechanisms (avoidance and tolerance) developed in response to a water stress and during recovery. Field-grown 7-year-old pear-jujube trees (cv. Grande de Albatera) were subjected to three irrigation treatments. Control (T0) plants were drip irrigated (112% ETo) in order to guarantee non-limiting soil water conditions, T1 plants (deficit irrigation, 64% ETo) were drip irrigated according to the criteria used by the grower and T2 plants irrigated as T0 but subjected to water withholding for 36 days and a subsequent re-irrigation at the levels used in T0 for 14 days, during the summer of 2011. The results indicated that pear-jujube plants confront water stress by developing stress avoidance and stress tolerance mechanisms. From the beginning of deficit irrigation (T1) and water withholding (T2) to when maximum water stress levels were achieved, leaf turgor was maintained allowing substantial gas exchange levels and, consequently, good leaf productivity. This leaf turgor maintenance was mainly due to two simultaneous and complementary mechanisms. Leaf conductance and the duration of maximum stomatal opening in water stressed plants decreased in order to control water loss via transpiration, contributing to maintain leaf turgor (stress avoidance mechanisms). Also, the gradual recovery of gl observed after rewatering the plants can be considered as a mechanism for promoting leaf rehydration. In addition, from the beginning of the stress period, active osmotic adjustment operated, also contributing to the maintenance of leaf turgor (stress tolerance mechanism). The high RWCa levels and the possibility of increasing the accumulation of water in the apoplasm in response to water stress, supporting a steeper gradient in water potential between the leaf and the soil, which can be considered another drought tolerance characteristic in pear-jujube.

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ene 13 2014

Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): A tool for coastal ecosystem management

Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): A tool for coastal ecosystem management.  M. Díaz-Asencioa,  (Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, Carretera Castillo de Jagua, Cienfuegos, CITMA-Cienfuegos, Cuba) et al. [revista en la Internet]

Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the 210Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Niño periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution.

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ene 13 2014

Hurricane Paloma’s effects on seagrasses along Jardines de la Reina Archipelago, Cuba

Hurricane Paloma’s effects on seagrasses along Jardines de la Reina Archipelago, Cuba. [Article in Spanish] Guimarais M, Zúñiga A, Pina F, Matos F. Rev Biol Trop. 2013 Sep;61(3):1425-32. [revista en la Internet]
Abstract
Seagrasses are one of the most important coastal ecosystems since they promote organic matter flow, nutrient cycling, food availability and refuge. Until now, reports on damages caused by storms and hurricanes on seagrass beds are uncommon and highly variable. The seagrass meadows of the East end of Jardines de la Reina archipelago were surveyed from Nov. 29th to Dec. 5th of 2008, in order to determinate the effects from the passing of Hurricane Paloma: a category three storm on the Saffir-Simpsom scale. A rapid field assessment of the affected areas was carried out using the manta tow technique. In six sites, seagrass was quantitatively evaluated using a 15cm diameter core (four sampling units per site) and shoot density was calculated. Remote sensing techniques were used to estimate seagrass cover. To estimate the percentage of affected areas, a Region of Interest (ROI) was first created over a Landsat image. The percentage of seagrass affected within the ROI was estimated through direct georeferentiation of the contours of the damaged area and with a comparison to the total seagrass extension. To find possible explanations for damages, a false colour image was created using the near infrared band, to highlight the differences between emerged and submerged zones. The direction of winds was estimated using ArcGis 9.2 creating circular buffers, from the centre of the hurricane and generating lines tangent to the buffers. Seagrass in the region was dominated by the angiosperm Thalassia testudinum. Regional mean density was 1 321 +/- 721 shoots/m2, a value regarded as high for the Caribbean area. Seagrass meadows were partly affected by sediment accumulation on the shoots of T. testudinum and uprooting rhizomes. The 7.6 km2 disturbed area represented 1% of the total seagrass area. Other sites, closer to the centre of the hurricane, did not show any damages on the marine vegetation. The keys location with respect to the hurricane track was the most likely cause of the effects. To the North of the affected area there is an opening among the keys where the generation ofwaves, currents and turbulence could have occurred. Three years after the hurricane event, both vegetation cover loss and silt re-colonization by macroalgae species were observed within the affected area, by showing a patchily-vegetated landscape. This site is currently undergoing a temporal succession whose assessment demands a monitoring scheme,  that will provide interesting information to document its future evolution and responsiveness against upcoming natural or anthropogenic events.

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ene 13 2014

Assessment of human health vulnerability to climate variability and change in Cuba

Assessment of human health vulnerability to climate variability and change in Cuba. Ortiz PL, Pérez A, Rivero A, León N, Díaz M, Pérez A. MEDICC Rev. 2008 Apr;10(2):31-48.  [revista en la Internet]
Reprinted with permission from Environmental Health Perspectives. Dec 2006;114:1942-1949. In this study we assessed the potential effects of climate variability and change on population health in Cuba. We describe the climate of Cuba as well as the patterns of climate-sensitive diseases of primary concern, particularly dengue fever. Analyses of the associations between climatic anomalies and disease patterns highlight current vulnerability to climate variability. We describe current adaptations, including the application of climate predictions to prevent disease outbreaks. Finally, we present the potential economic costs associated with future impacts due to climate change. The tools used in this study can be useful in the development of appropriate and effective adaptation options to address the increased climate variability associated with climate change.

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ene 13 2014

Temporal trends and regional variability of 2001-2002 multiwave DENV-3 epidemic in Havana City: did Hurricane Michelle contribute to its severity?

Temporal trends and regional variability of 2001-2002 multiwave DENV-3 epidemic in Havana City: did Hurricane Michelle contribute to its severity? Hsieh YH, de Arazoza H, Lounes R. Trop Med Int Health. 2013 Jul; 18(7):830-8. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12105. Epub 2013 Apr 17. Source: Department of Public Health and Center for Infectious Disease Education and Research, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. hsieh@mail.cmu.edu.tw Department of Mathematics, University of Havana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. [revista en la Internet]
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
To investigate the temporal and regional variability of the 2001-2002 dengue outbreak in Havana City where 12 889 cases, mostly of DENV-3 type, were reported over a period of 7 months.
METHODS:
A simple mathematical model, the Richards model, was used to fit the weekly reported dengue case data by municipality, in order to quantify the transmissibility and temporal changes in the epidemic in each municipality via the basic reproduction number R0 .
RESULTS:
Model fits indicate either a 2-wave or 3-wave outbreak in all municipalities. Estimates for R0 varied greatly, from 1.97 (95% CI: 1.94, 2.01), for Arroyo Naranjo, to 61.06 (60.44, 61.68), for Boyeros, most likely due to heterogeneity in community structure, geographical locations and social networking.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our results illustrate the potential impact of climatological events on disease spread, further highlighting the need to be well prepared for potentially worsening disease spread in the aftermath of natural disasters such as hurricanes/typhoons.

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ene 13 2014

Observations of fallout from the Fukushima reactor accident in Cienfuegos, Cuba

Observations of fallout from the Fukushima reactor accident in Cienfuegos, Cuba. Alonso-Hernandez CM, Guillen-Arruebarrena A, Cartas-Aguila H, Morera-Gomez Y, Diaz-Asencio M. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012 May; 88(5):752-4. doi: 10.1007/s00128-012-0542-x. Epub 2012 Feb 7. Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5, Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos, Cuba. carlos@ceac.cu  [revista en la Internet]
Following the recent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, radioactive contamination was observed near the reactor site. As a contribution towards the understanding of the worldwide impact of the accident, we collected fallout samples in Cienfuegos, Cuba, and examined them for the presence of above normal amounts of radioactivity. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples showed clear evidence of fission products (131)I and (137)Cs. However, the fallout levels measured for these isotopes (135 ± 4.78 mBq m(-2) day(-1) for (131)I and 10.7 ± 0.38 mBq m(-2) day(-1)for (137)Cs) were very low and posed no health risk to the public. The doses received as consequence to the Fukushima fallout by the Cienfuegos population’s (0.002 mSv per year) don’t overcome the limit of dose (1 mSv per year) fixed for the public in Cuba. PMID: 22310844

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oct 31 2013

Algunas consideraciones sobre desastre y discapacidad

Algunas consideraciones sobre desastre y discapacidad. Ventura Velázquez René Esteban, HernándezTápanes Solangel, Lorenzo Ruiz Alexis, Sánchez Gil Isis Ivonne, Bravo AcostaTania
Revista Cubana de Medicina Física y Rehabilitación2010 (2) 1

Los desastres producen un legado de lesiones y deficiencias, las que dependen del tipo de evento que las generó y de la preparación de sus comunidades para evitarlas o al menos atenuarlas. Se estima que por cada fallecido, otros tres resultan lesionados y con deficiencias permanentes. Por otra parte en las comunidades conviven personas con discapacidades previas a los desastres. Sus limitaciones harán más complejos sus esfuerzos de reintegración y participación en las labores de reconstrucción. La integración del discapacitado en su comunidad previo a un desastre es una premisa fundamental para la garantía de su inclusión en las labores de protección luego de un desastre en condición de damnificados. Las personas con discapacidad u otras necesidades especiales a menudo tienen requerimientos particulares que exigen una planificación más detallada en caso de desastre, vinculado al entorno o físico, el acceso a la información y la cultura en el discapacitado de las acciones a desarrollar en desastres tanto antes como durante y después.

Los desastres generan discapacidad en las víctimas y dificultades para la atención de los que ya lo eran previamente. Por lo que esta condición debe ser tenida en cuenta en todas las etapas del ciclo de reducción de desastres.

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abr 03 2012

Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): a tool for coastal ecosystem management

Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): a tool for coastal ecosystem management. Díaz-Asencio M, Alvarado JA, Alonso-Hernández C, Quejido-Cabezas A, Ruiz-Fernández AC, Sanchez-Sanchez M, Gómez-Mancebo MB, Froidevaux P, Sanchez-Cabeza JA. J Hazard Mater. 2011 Nov 30; 196:402-11. Epub 2011 Sep 16.

Source. Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, Carretera Castillo de Jagua, Cienfuegos, CITMA-Cienfuegos, Cuba. misael@ceac.cu

Abstract

Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the (210)Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Niño periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90 s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90 s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90 s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution.

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